PUBLICATIONS

Links are provided to each publication. Please contact me if you do not have access. I have also published several book reviews (not listed).

2020: Refereed Edited Volume

ANIMAL TRADE HISTORIES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN WORLD (CHAM, CH: PALGRAVE)

Co-edited with Martha Chaiklin and Gwyn Campbell.  An international array of established and emerging scholars investigate how the roles of equines, ungulates, sub-ungulates, mollusks, and avians expand our understandings of commerce, human societies, and world systems. Focusing primarily on the period 1500-1900, they explore how animals and their products shaped the relationships between populations in the IOW and Europeans arriving by maritime routes. By elucidating this fundamental yet under-explored aspect of encounters and exchanges in the IOW, these interdisciplinary essays further our understanding of the region, the environment, and the material, political and economic history of the world.

2020: Refereed Book Chapter

'THE IVORY TRADE AND POLITICAL POWER IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY EAST AFRICA.'

In: Animal Trade Histories in the Indian Ocean World, eds. Martha Chaiklin, Philip Gooding, and Gwyn Campbell (Cham, CH: Palgrave): 247-75. This chapter analyses ivory consumption and trade in the context of shifting political power in nineteenth-century East Africa. It firstly describes how increased demand for ivory and ivory products in the wider Indian Ocean World, Europe, and North America contributed to a decline in ivory’s ownership, usage, and display in East Africa. It then examines the nature and construction of Omani and coastal East African communities in East Africa’s interior to show how political power became increasingly tied to access and control the ivory trade. In nineteenth-century East Africa, ivory was transformed from a product with significant symbolic capital to one whose history was increasingly shaped by capitalistic forces.

2020: Refereed Book Chapter

'INTRODUCTION: INVESTIGATING ANIMALS, THEIR PRODUCTS, AND THEIR TRADES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN WORLD'

Co-authored with Martha Chaiklin. In: Animal Trade Histories in the Indian Ocean World, eds. Martha Chaiklin, Philip Gooding, and Gwyn Campbell (Cham, CH: Palgrave): 1-25. The introduction lays out the reasons for centring animals in a collection of histories that have commerce as a key feature, and examines how this approach informs understandings of the Indian Ocean World (IOW). It provides a sort of ‘entry tent’ to further historical understandings of the relationships between humans, animals, commerce, and world systems through consideration of the origins of animal studies, methodological opportunities and constraints, and recent developments in longue durée world histories in the context of human-environment and human-animal interaction. Animals are considered as central to conceptions of the IOW, and their histories speak to the robustness of IOW commercial networks in the period c.1500–1900.

2019: Refereed Journal Article

 'TSETSE FLIES, ENSO, AND MURDER: THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY'S FAILED EAST AFRICAN OX-CART EXPERIEMENT OF 1876-78.'

In: Africa: Rivista semestrale di studi e ricerche, N/S, 1, 2: 21-36. The failure of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) to implement the use of ox-carts in place of human porters in East Africa in 1876-78 is conventionally attributed to their misunderstanding of African peoples, environment, and diseases. This article contends that there were further factors, specific to the years of their attempt, that undermined the missionaries’ designs. These were, firstly, that heightened levels of rainfall, associated with an El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event alongside a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), expanded tsetse habitats and contributed to an epidemic of trypanosomiasis; and secondly, that the murder of CMS personnel on the southeastern shores of Lake Victoria necessitated the leader of the ox-cart experiment abandoning any designs on future attempts. There is evidence to suggest that missionaries could have implemented travel by ox-cart if they had made attempts at almost any time in the nineteenth century other than in 1876-78.

2019: Refereed Journal Article

'ISLAM IN THE INTERIOR OF PRECOLONIAL EAST AFRICA: EVIDENCE FROM LAKE TANGANYIKA'

In: The Journal of African History, 60, 2: 191-208. Most histories of East Africa's precolonial interior only give cursory attention to Islam, especially in histories of present-day west-central Tanzania and the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Most converts to Islam in this context are usually viewed as ‘nominal’ Muslims. This article, by contrast, builds on recent scholarship on other regions and time periods that questions the conceptual validity of the ‘nominal’ Muslim. New converts necessarily questioned their social relationships, ways of living, and ritual practices through the act of conversion. On the shores of Lake Tanganyika, new converts were observable through the act of circumcision, dietary restrictions, abidance by some of Islam's core tenets, and the adoption and adaptation of certain phenomena from East Africa's Indian Ocean coast and islands. Interior populations’ conversion to Islam was bound up with broader coast-interior material, cultural, and religious exchanges.

2019: Refereed Journal Article

'HISTORY, POLITICS, AND CULTURE IN CENTRAL TANZANIA'

In: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History: 1-32. Central Tanzania is a heterogenous region in the interior of East Africa. Its history, politics, and cultures have been affected by numerous outside influences. These outside influences have primarily come in the form of migrants from elsewhere in the East African interior and the Western Indian Ocean world, and in the form of “proto-colonial,” colonial, and postcolonial governance structures, whose centers since the mid-19th century have been located in Tanzania’s coastal or island regions. Despite the apparent “newness” that each migrant group or governor instituted, Central Tanzania’s politics and cultures have shown a remarkable adaptability to new influences, whether that be to ivory traders arriving in the region during the 19th century or to colonial rulers attempting to govern it during the 20th. Additionally, Islam and Christianity have taken a variety of forms within Central Tanzania, none of which exactly correspond to the ideals of those who originally brought them to the region. The peoples of Central Tanzania have acculturated to outside influences and reconciled them with their preexisting and developing political and cultural structures.

2019: Refereed Journal Article

'SLAVERY, ‘RESPECTABILITY,’ AND BEING ‘FREEBORN’ ON THE SHORES OF NINETEENTH-CENTURY LAKE TANGANYIKA'

In: Slavery and Abolition, 40, 1: 147-67. Concepts of slavery and freedom dominate the historiography of labour and social relations in nineteenth-century East and Central Africa. This article argues that such concepts oversimplify the complexity of other forms of servitude. It does so by analysing the position of people who referred to themselves as ngwana on the shores of Lake Tanganyika. Ngwana translates from Swahili as ‘gentlemen,’ and it implies ‘respectability’ and ‘freeborn’ status. Yet most ngwana could not claim to be free, even if they had ceased being slaves. Rather than freedom, ngwana sought ‘respect,’and in so doing blurred the lines between slavery and freedom.